Chairs are kindly asked to note the following three points:

1. Time control: due to the tight schedule of the programme, please start and end the session on time. When any of the presentations work overtime, please warn the presenter of the time, and if necessary, terminate the presentation immediately.

2. To have a better control of the time, it is not recommendable for the chairs to introduce the presenters or to make comments on the presentation. Listeners who are interested can find the brief CVs of the presenters in the handbook or on the 2012 ISES website.

3. Organizing the discussion: if the presentation is given in a language other than English or Chinese, you can invite the scholars present to translate for the discussion period to enable a better communication between presenters and the audience.